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Critical Role of Peripheral Vasoconstriction in Fatal Brain Hyperthermia Induced by MDMA (Ecstasy) under Conditions That Mimic Human Drug UseMDMA can be fatal in warm environments

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#1 Claviceps

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Posted 18 June 2014 - 11:34 AM

A moderate dose of MDMA, commonly known as Ecstasy or Molly, that is typically nonfatal in cool, quiet environments can be lethal in rats exposed to conditions that mimic the hot, crowded, social settings where the drug is often used by people, a study finds. Scientists have identified the therapeutically-relevant cooling mechanism to enable effective interventions when faced with MDMA-induced hyperthermia.

The study, publishing tomorrow in the Journal of Neuroscience, was conducted by researchers at the National Institute on Drug Abuses Intramural Research Program (NIDA IRP). NIDA is a part of the National Institutes of Health.

While MDMA can have a range of adverse health effects, previous studies have shown that high doses of MDMA increase body temperature, while results with moderate doses were inconsistent. This has led some people to assume that the drug is harmless if taken in moderation. However, this study shows that in rats even moderate doses of MDMA in certain environments can be dangerous because it interferes with the bodys ability to regulate temperature.

We know that high doses of MDMA can sharply increase body temperature to potentially lead to organ failure or even death, said NIDA Director Dr. Nora D. Volkow. However, this current study opens the possibility that even moderate doses could be deadly in certain conditions.

It is impossible to predict who will have an adverse reaction even to a low dose of MDMA. However, in this study scientists gave the rats low to moderate doses that have been shown in past studies to not be fatal. They monitored the rats to determine drug-induced changes in brain and body temperature and in the bodys ability to cool itself through blood vessel dilation. When rats were alone and in a room-temperature environment, a moderate dose of MDMA modestly increased brain and body temperature and moderately diminished the rats ability to eliminate excessive heat. However, when researchers injected the same dose in rats that were either in a warmer environment or in the presence of another rat in the cage, brain temperature increased, causing death in some rats. These fatal temperature increases were because the drug interfered with the bodys ability to eliminate heat.

These results demonstrate that the use of MDMA in certain warm, social settings could be more dangerous than commonly believed, said Dr. Eugene Kiyatkin, first author on the study and NIDA IRP scientist. Even with moderate doses, we saw drug-induced, fatal brain hyperthermia during conditions of social interaction and in warm environments.

These findings further suggest that medical interventions aimed at increasing the efficiency of whole-body cooling by targeting blood vessel constriction in the skin could be therapeutically relevant for counteracting the development of MDMA-induced hyperthermia.

Bron: http://www.drugabuse...rm-environments
Abstract Paper: Critical Role of Peripheral Vasoconstriction in Fatal Brain Hyperthermia Induced by MDMA (Ecstasy) under Conditions That Mimic Human Drug Use

“Scientists do not speak in absolutes, they present the results that support the hypothesis and the tolerance for error.”


#2 Immad

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Posted 18 June 2014 - 07:47 PM

Interessant! :)



#3 SuperFunker

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Posted 18 June 2014 - 08:13 PM

Interessant is t zeker. Toch verklaart het de toename van XTC incidenten de afgelopen jaren niet. Als het echt snel dodelijk zou zijn zou dat in de jaren 90 of jaren 0 ook al duidelijk geworden moeten zijn imho.



#4 Claviceps

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Posted 21 June 2014 - 07:15 PM

Het aantal MDMA incidenten lijkt mij moeilijk te reduceren tot een enkele variabel. In de afgelopen jaren is gebleken dat er vaker hogere doseringen zijn geconstateerd, en voorvallen met PMMA en andere stoffen die een groter gevaar vormen. Grotere publieke interesse in MDMA en onverstandig gebruik kunnen het de statistieken over de jaren heen ook vergroten. Voorvallen die in de periode 90 en 2000 leiden tot ziekenhuis opnamen kunnen zijn geclassificeerd onder een andere categorie omdat men nog niet goed bekend was met de effecten van een MDMA overdosis.

 

De reden waarom er misschien in de jaren 90 en 2000 ook minder gevallen bekend zijn zou te maken kunnen hebben met de manier waarop statistieken vastgelegd werden, gedeeld, en beschikbaar gemaakt werden. Door de technische vooruitgang is men beter in staat om bijvoorbeeld deze gegevens toegangkelijk te maken. In de jaren 90 en 2000 waren er maar relatief weinig mensen die een degelijke internet verbindingen hadden en het meeste nieuws werd toen nog via kranten en TV verspreid. Daarnaast kun je ook te maken hebben met de media en politieke focus toentertijd die wellicht minder geinteresseerd was in MDMA.

 

Dit zijn maar een aantal redenen waarom het wellicht kan verschillen. Er zijn vast nog meer redenen waarom dit verschil bestaat.


“Scientists do not speak in absolutes, they present the results that support the hypothesis and the tolerance for error.”






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