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#1 Phlogiston

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Posted 04 January 2019 - 12:31 PM

Bron: https://www.springer...653.About_eBook

 

This volume brings together the latest basic and clinical research examining the effects and underlying mechanisms of psychedelic drugs. Examples of drugs within this group include LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline. Despite their structural differences, these compounds produce remarkably similar experiences in humans and share a common mechanism of action.  Commonalities among the substances in this family are addressed both at the clinical and phenomenological level and at the basic neurobiological mechanism level. To the extent possible, contributions relate the clinical and preclinical findings to one another across species. The volume addresses both the risks associated with the use of these drugs and the potential medical benefits that might be associated with these and related compounds.

 

TOC:

  • Chemistry and Structure–Activity Relationships of Psychedelics

    Nichols, David E., Pages 1-43

  • Hallucinogens and Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptor-Mediated Signaling Pathways

    López-Giménez, Juan F. (et al.), Pages 45-73

  • Effects of Hallucinogens on Neuronal Activity

    Lladó-Pelfort, L. (et al.), Pages 75-105

  • Interactions of Hallucinogens with the Glutamatergic System: Permissive Network Effects Mediated Through Cortical Layer V Pyramidal Neurons

    Marek, Gerard J., Pages 107-135

  • The Effects of Hallucinogens on Gene Expression

    Martin, David A. (et al.), Pages 137-158

  • Effect of Hallucinogens on Unconditioned Behavior

    Halberstadt, Adam L. (et al.), Pages 159-199

  • Hallucinogens in Drug Discrimination

    Baker, Lisa E., Pages 201-219

  • Phenomenology, Structure, and Dynamic of Psychedelic States

    Preller, Katrin H. (et al.), Pages 221-256

  • Serotonergic Hallucinogen-Induced Visual Perceptual Alterations

    Kometer, Michael (et al.), Pages 257-282

  • New World Tryptamine Hallucinogens and the Neuroscience of Ayahuasca

    McKenna, Dennis (et al.), Pages 283-311

  • Experimental Psychosis Research and Schizophrenia—Similarities and Dissimilarities in Psychopathology

    Hermle, Leo (et al.), Pages 313-332

  • A Review of Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD) and an Exploratory Study of Subjects Claiming Symptoms of HPPD

    Halpern, John H. (et al.), Pages 333-360

  • Therapeutic Applications of Classic Hallucinogens

    Bogenschutz, Michael P. (et al.), Pages 361-391

  • Classic Hallucinogens and Mystical Experiences: Phenomenology and Neural Correlates

    Barrett, Frederick S. (et al.), Pages 393-430

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                      

Chapter 1: https://link.springe...07/7854_2017_47

 

Chemistry and Structure–Activity Relationships of Psychedelics

 

Abstract

This chapter will summarize structure–activity relationships (SAR) that are known for the classic serotonergic hallucinogens (aka psychedelics), focusing on the three chemical types: tryptamines, ergolines, and phenethylamines. In the brain, the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor plays a key role in regulation of cortical function and cognition, and also appears to be the principal target for hallucinogenic/psychedelic drugs such as LSD. It is one of the most extensively studied of the 14 known types of serotonin receptors. Important structural features will be identified for activity and, where possible, those that the psychedelics have in common will be discussed. Because activation of the 5-HT2A receptor is the principal mechanism of action for psychedelics, compounds with 5-HT2A agonist activity generally are quickly discarded by the pharmaceutical industry. Thus, most of the research on psychedelics can be related to activation of 5-HT2A receptors. Therefore, much of the discussion will include not only clinical or anecdotal studies, but also will consider data from animal models as well as a certain amount of molecular pharmacology where it is known.

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                      

Chapter 2: https://link.springe...07/7854_2017_47

 

Hallucinogens and Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptor-Mediated Signaling Pathways

 

Abstract

The neuropsychological effects of naturally occurring psychoactive chemicals have been recognized for millennia. Hallucinogens, which include naturally occurring chemicals such as mescaline and psilocybin, as well as synthetic compounds, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), induce profound alterations of human consciousness, emotion, and cognition. The discovery of the hallucinogenic effects of LSD and the observations that LSD and the endogenous ligand serotonin share chemical and pharmacological profiles led to the suggestion that biogenic amines like serotonin were involved in the psychosis of mental disorders such as schizophrenia. Although they bind other G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) subtypes, studies indicate that several effects of hallucinogens involve agonist activity at the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor. In this chapter, we review recent advances in understanding hallucinogen drug action through characterization of structure, neuroanatomical location, and function of the 5-HT2A receptor.

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                      

Chapter 3: https://link.springe...07/7854_2017_47

 

Effects of Hallucinogens on Neuronal Activity

 

Abstract

Hallucinogens evoke sensory, perceptual, affective, and cognitive effects that may be useful to understand the neurobiological basis of mood and psychotic disorders. The present chapter reviews preclinical research carried out in recent years in order to better understand the action of psychotomimetic agents such as the noncompetitive NMDA receptor (NMDA-R) antagonists and serotonergic hallucinogens. Our studies have focused on the mechanisms through which these agents alter cortical activity. Noncompetitive NMDA-R antagonists, such as phencyclidine (PCP) and MK-801 (dizocilpine), as well as the serotonergic hallucinogens DOI and 5-MeO-DMT, produce similar effects on cellular and population activity in prefrontal cortex (PFC); these effects include alterations of pyramidal neuron discharge (with an overall increase in firing), as well as a marked attenuation of the low frequency oscillations (0.2–4 Hz) to which neuronal discharge is coupled in anesthetized rodents. PCP increases c-fos expression in excitatory neurons from various cortical and subcortical areas, particularly the thalamus. This effect of PCP involves the preferential blockade of NMDA-R on GABAergic neurons of the reticular nucleus of the thalamus, which provides feedforward inhibition to the rest of thalamic nuclei. It is still unknown whether serotonergic hallucinogens also affect thalamocortical networks. However, when examined, similar alterations in other cortical areas, such as the primary visual cortex (V1), have been observed, suggesting that these agents affect cortical activity in sensory and associative areas. Interestingly, the disruption of PFC activity induced by PCP, DOI and 5-MeO-DMT is reversed by classical and atypical antipsychotic drugs. This effect suggests a possible link between the mechanisms underlying the disruption of perception by multiple classes of hallucinogenic agents and the therapeutic efficacy of antipsychotic agents.

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                      

Chapter 4: https://link.springe...007/7854_2017_4

 

Interactions of Hallucinogens with the Glutamatergic System: Permissive Network Effects Mediated Through Cortical Layer V Pyramidal Neurons
 

Abstract

Recordings made from layer V (L5) pyramidal cells of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and neocortex in rodent slice preparations have shown that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and serotonergic hallucinogens induce an increase in the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in the apical dendritic field by activating 5-HT2A receptors. Serotonergic hallucinogens induce late EPSCs and increase recurrent network activity when subcortical or mid-cortical regions are stimulated at low frequencies (e.g., 0.1 Hz). A range of agonists or positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) for mostly Gi/o-coupled receptors, including metabotropic glutamate2 (mGlu2), adenosine A1, or μ-opioid receptors, suppress these effects of 5-HT2A receptor stimulation. Furthermore, a range of mostly Gq/11-coupled receptors (including orexin2 [OX2]; α1-adrenergic, and mGlu5 receptors) similarly induce glutamate (Glu) release onto L5 pyramidal cells. Evidence implicates a number of brain regions in mediating these effects of serotonergic hallucinogens and Gq/11-coupled receptors including the midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei, claustrum, and neurons in deep PFC. These effects on 5-HT2A receptors and related GPCRs appear to play a major role in the behavioral effects of serotonergic hallucinogens, such as head twitches in rodents and higher order behaviors such as rodent lever pressing on the differential-reinforcement-of-low rate 72-s (DRL 72-s) schedule. This implies that the effects of 5-HT2A receptor activation on the activity of L5 pyramidal cells may be responsible for mediating a range of behaviors linked to limbic circuitry with connectivity between the PFC, striatum, thalamus, claustrum, striatum, amygdala, and the hippocampal formation.

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                      

Chapter 5: https://link.springe...07/7854_2017_47

 

The Effects of Hallucinogens on Gene Expression
 

Abstract

The classic serotonergic hallucinogens, or psychedelics, have the ability to profoundly alter perception and behavior. These can include visual distortions, hallucinations, detachment from reality, and mystical experiences. Some psychedelics, like LSD, are able to produce these effects with remarkably low doses of drug. Others, like psilocybin, have recently been demonstrated to have significant clinical efficacy in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and addiction that persist for at least several months after only a single therapeutic session. How does this occur? Much work has recently been published from imaging studies showing that psychedelics alter brain network connectivity. They facilitate a disintegration of the default mode network, producing a hyperconnectivity between brain regions that allow centers that do not normally communicate with each other to do so. The immediate and acute effects on both behaviors and network connectivity are likely mediated by effector pathways downstream of serotonin 5-HT2A receptor activation. These acute molecular processes also influence gene expression changes, which likely influence synaptic plasticity and facilitate more long-term changes in brain neurochemistry ultimately underlying the therapeutic efficacy of a single administration to achieve long-lasting effects. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about the molecular genetic responses to psychedelics within the brain and discuss how gene expression changes may contribute to altered cellular physiology and behaviors.

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                      

Chapter 6: https://link.springe...07/7854_2016_46

 

Effect of Hallucinogens on Unconditioned Behavior
 

Abstract

Because of the ethical and regulatory hurdles associated with human studies, much of what is known about the psychopharmacology of hallucinogens has been derived from animal models. However, developing reliable animal models has proven to be a challenging task due to the complexity and variability of hallucinogen effects in humans. This chapter focuses on three animal models that are frequently used to test the effects of hallucinogens on unconditioned behavior: head twitch response (HTR), prepulse inhibition of startle (PPI), and exploratory behavior. The HTR has demonstrated considerable utility in the neurochemical actions of hallucinogens. However, the latter two models have clearer conceptual bridges to human phenomenology. Consistent with the known mechanism of action of hallucinogens in humans, the behavioral effects of hallucinogens in rodents are mediated primarily by activation of 5-HT2A receptors. There is evidence, however, that other receptors may play secondary roles. The structure–activity relationships (SAR) of hallucinogens are reviewed in relation to each model, with a focus on the HTR in rats and mice.

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                      

Chapter 7: https://link.springe...07/7854_2017_47

 

Hallucinogens in Drug Discrimination
 

Abstract

Hallucinogens comprise a diverse collection of chemicals with multifarious receptor actions in the central nervous system. Preclinical drug screening methods have proven invaluable in the evaluation and characterization of hallucinogen psychopharmacology. Used in concert with structural chemistry and receptor pharmacology methods, preclinical drug discrimination research has informed our current understanding of hallucinogens and the neurochemical receptor mechanisms responsible for their interoceptive stimulus effects. This chapter summarizes the strengths and limitations of drug discrimination as an in vivo drug detection method and offers a brief review of historical and contemporary drug discrimination research with classical hallucinogens.

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                      

Chapter 8: https://link.springe...07/7854_2016_45

 

Phenomenology, Structure, and Dynamic of Psychedelic States
 

Abstract

Classic serotonergic hallucinogens or psychedelics produce an altered states of consciousness (ASC) that is characterized by profound alterations in sensory perception, mood, thought including the perception of reality, and the sense of self. Over the past years, there has been considerable progress in the search for invariant and common features of psychedelic states. In the first part of this review, we outline contemporary approaches to characterize the structure of ASCs by means of three primary etiology-independent dimensions including oceanic boundlessness, anxious ego-dissolution, and visionary restructuralization as well as by 11 lower-order factors, all of which can be reliably measured by the altered state of consciousness questionnaire (APZ-OAV). The second part sheds light on the dynamic nature of psychedelic experiences. Frequently, psychedelic subjects progress through different stages over time and levels of changes along a perception-hallucination continuum of increasing arousal and ego-dissolution. We then review in detail the acute effects of psychedelics on sensory perception, emotion, cognition, creativity, and time perception along with possible neural mechanisms underlying them. The next part of this review outlines the influence of non-pharmacological factors (predictors) on the acute psychedelic experience, such as demographics, genetics, personality, mood, and setting, and also discusses some long-term effects succeeding the acute experience. The last part presents some recent concepts and models attempting to understand different facets of psychedelic states of consciousness from a neuroscientific perspective.

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                      

Chapter 9: https://link.springe...07/7854_2016_46

 

Serotonergic Hallucinogen-Induced Visual Perceptual Alterations
 

Abstract

Serotonergic hallucinogens, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin, and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), are famous for their capacity to temporally and profoundly alter an individual’s visual experiences. These visual alterations show consistent attributes despite large inter- and intra-individual variances. Many reports document a common perception of colors as more saturated, with increased brightness and contrast in the environment (“Visual Intensifications”). Environmental objects might be altered in size (“Visual illusions”) or take on a modified and special meaning for the subject (“Altered self-reference”). Subjects may perceive light flashes or geometrical figures containing recurrent patterns (“Elementary imagery and hallucinations”) influenced by auditory stimuli (“Audiovisual synesthesia”), or they may envision images of people, animals, or landscapes (“Complex imagery and hallucinations”) without any physical stimuli supporting their percepts. This wide assortment of visual phenomena suggests that one single neuropsychopharmacological mechanism is unlikely to explain such vast phenomenological diversity. Starting with mechanisms that act at the cellular level, the key role of 5-HT2A receptor activation and the subsequent increased cortical excitation will be considered. Next, it will be shown that area specific anatomical and dynamical features link increased excitation to the specific visual contents of hallucinations. The decrease of alpha oscillations by hallucinogens will then be introduced as a systemic mechanism for amplifying internal-driven excitation that overwhelms stimulus-induced excitations. Finally, the hallucinogen-induced parallel decrease of the N170 visual evoked potential and increased medial P1 potential will be discussed as key mechanisms for inducing a dysbalance between global integration and early visual gain that may explain several hallucinogen-induced visual experiences, including visual hallucinations, illusions, and intensifications.

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                      

Chapter 10: https://link.springe...07/7854_2015_36

 

New World Tryptamine Hallucinogens and the Neuroscience of Ayahuasca
 

Abstract

New World indigenous peoples are noted for their sophisticated use of psychedelic plants in shamanic and ethnomedical practices. The use of psychedelic plant preparations among New World tribes is far more prevalent than in the Old World. Yet, although these preparations are botanically diverse, almost all are chemically similar in that their active principles are tryptamine derivatives, either DMT or related constituents. Part 1 of this paper provides an ethnopharmacological overview of the major tryptamine-containing New World hallucinogens.

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                      

Chapter 11: https://rd.springer....07/7854_2016_46

 

Experimental Psychosis Research and Schizophrenia—Similarities and Dissimilarities in Psychopathology

 

Abstract

The aim of experimental psychopathology is to delineate overlapping functional disorders of psychoneurobiologically-defined systems where a set of common symptoms may correspond to a variety of nosological entities. According to the vulnerability model of psychosis, experimental research needs to go beyond categories such as “schizophrenia”. Prospective studies of the effects of psychoactive substances in normal control subjects offer several methodological advantages over routine clinical reviews of schizophrenic patients, especially in terms of standardization. Carefully designed studies utilizing a model psychosis paradigm are a step toward symptom-oriented research. Combining psychological and neurobiological techniques, the experimental psychopathological approach can provide us with a valuable tool for psychiatric research.

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                      

Chapter 12: https://link.springe...07/7854_2016_45

 

A Review of Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD) and an Exploratory Study of Subjects Claiming Symptoms of HPPD

 

Abstract

Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is rarely encountered in clinical settings. It is described as a re-experiencing of some perceptual distortions induced while intoxicated and suggested to subsequently cause functional impairment or anxiety. Two forms exist: Type 1, which are brief “flashbacks,” and Type 2 claimed to be chronic, waxing, and waning over months to years. A review of HPPD is presented. In addition, data from a comprehensive survey of 20 subjects reporting Type-2 HPPD-like symptoms are presented and evaluated. Dissociative Symptoms are consistently associated with HPPD. Results of the survey suggest that HPPD is in most cases due to a subtle over-activation of predominantly neural visual pathways that worsens anxiety after ingestion of arousal-altering drugs, including non-hallucinogenic substances. Individual or family histories of anxiety and pre-drug use complaints of tinnitus, eye floaters, and concentration problems may predict vulnerability for HPPD. Future research should take a broader outlook as many perceptual symptoms reported were not first experienced while intoxicated and are partially associated with pre-existing psychiatric comorbidity.

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                      

Chapter 13: https://link.springe...7/7854_2016_464

 

Therapeutic Applications of Classic Hallucinogens
 

Abstract

This chapter reviews what is known about the therapeutic uses of the serotonergic or classic hallucinogens, i.e., psychoactive drugs such as LSD and psilocybin that exert their effects primarily through agonist activity at serotonin 2A (5HT2A) receptors. Following a review of the history of human use and scientific study of these drugs, the data from clinical research are summarized, including extensive work on the use of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of alcoholism and other addictions, studies of the use of LSD and psilocybin to relieve distress concerning death, particularly in patients with advanced or terminal cancer, and more limited data concerning the use of classic hallucinogens to treat mood and anxiety disorders. A survey of possible mechanisms of clinically relevant effects is provided. The well-established safety of classic hallucinogens is reviewed. To provide a clinical perspective, case summaries are provided of two individuals who received treatment in recent controlled trials of psilocybin: one being treated for alcoholism, the other suffering from anxiety and depression related to fear of death due to a cancer diagnosis. Although promising early phase research conducted from the 1950s through the early 1970s was discontinued before firm conclusions could be reached concerning the efficacy of any of the classic hallucinogens for any clinical condition, the research that was conducted in that era strongly suggests that classic hallucinogens have clinically relevant effects, particularly in the case of LSD treatment of alcoholism. In the past decade, clinical trials have resumed investigating the effects of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of existential distress in the face of cancer, and in the treatment of addictions including alcoholism and nicotine addiction. The studies that have been completed to date are not sufficient to establish efficacy, but the outcomes have been very encouraging, and larger trials, up to and including phase 3, are now underway or being planned. Although research has elucidated many of the acute neurobiological and psychological effects of classic hallucinogens on humans, animals, and in vitro systems, the mechanisms of clinically relevant persisting effects remain poorly understood.

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                      

Chapter 14: https://link.springe...07/7854_2016_46

 

Classic Hallucinogens and Mystical Experiences: Phenomenology and Neural Correlates

 

Abstract

This chapter begins with a brief review of descriptions and definitions of mystical-type experiences and the historical connection between classic hallucinogens and mystical experiences. The chapter then explores the empirical literature on experiences with classic hallucinogens in which claims about mystical or religious experiences have been made. A psychometrically validated questionnaire is described for the reliable measurement of mystical-type experiences occasioned by classic hallucinogens. Controlled laboratory studies show that under double-blind conditions that provide significant controls for expectancy bias, psilocybin can occasion complete mystical experiences in the majority of people studied. These effects are dose-dependent, specific to psilocybin compared to placebo or a psychoactive control substance, and have enduring impact on the moods, attitudes, and behaviors of participants as assessed by self-report of participants and ratings by community observers. Other studies suggest that enduring personal meaning in healthy volunteers and therapeutic outcomes in patients, including reduction and cessation of substance abuse behaviors and reduction of anxiety and depression in patients with a life-threatening cancer diagnosis, are related to the occurrence of mystical experiences during drug sessions. The final sections of the chapter draw parallels in human neuroscience research between the neural bases of experiences with classic hallucinogens and the neural bases of meditative practices for which claims of mystical-type experience are sometimes made. From these parallels, a functional neural model of mystical experience is proposed, based on changes in the default mode network of the brain that have been observed after the administration of classic hallucinogens and during meditation practices for which mystical-type claims have been made.


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