Chemistry and Structure–Activity Relationships of Psychedelics
This chapter will summarize structure–activity relationships (SAR) that are known for the classic serotonergic hallucinogens (aka psychedelics), focusing on the three chemical types: tryptamines, ergolines, and phenethylamines. In the brain, the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor plays a key role in regulation of cortical function and cognition, and also appears to be the principal target for hallucinogenic/psychedelic drugs such as LSD. It is one of the most extensively studied of the 14 known types of serotonin receptors. Important structural features will be identified for activity and, where possible, those that the psychedelics have in common will be discussed. Because activation of the 5-HT2A receptor is the principal mechanism of action for psychedelics, compounds with 5-HT2A agonist activity generally are quickly discarded by the pharmaceutical industry. Thus, most of the research on psychedelics can be related to activation of 5-HT2A receptors. Therefore, much of the discussion will include not only clinical or anecdotal studies, but also will consider data from animal models as well as a certain amount of molecular pharmacology where it is known.