Part I van deze serie had ik al in het 1p-LSD-topic gepost, maar inmiddels zijn part II en III nu ook verschenen, dus waarom niet allemaal in hetzelfde topic.
Return of the lysergamides. Part I: Analytical and behavioural characterization of 1-propionyl-d-lysergic acid diethylamide (1P-LSD)
1-Propionyl-d-lysergic acid diethylamide hemitartrate (1P-LSD) has become available as a ‘research chemical’ in the form of blotters and powdered material. This non-controlled derivative of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has previously not been described in the published literature despite being closely related to 1-acetyl-LSD (ALD-52), which was developed in the 1950s. This study describes the characterization of 1P-LSD in comparison with LSD using various chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods, infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An important feature common to LSD and other serotonergic hallucinogens is that they produce 5-HT2A-receptor activation and induce the head-twitch response (HTR) in rats and mice. In order to assess whether 1P-LSD displays LSD-like properties and activates the 5-HT2A receptor, male C57BL/6 J mice were injected with vehicle (saline) or 1P-LSD (0.025–0.8 mg/kg, IP) and HTR assessed for 30 min using magnetometer coil recordings. It was found that 1P-LSD produced a dose-dependent increase in HTR counts, and that it had ~38% (ED50 = 349.6 nmol/kg) of the potency of LSD (ED50 = 132.8 nmol/kg). Furthermore, HTR was abolished when 1P-LSD administration followed pretreatment with the selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 (0.1 mg/kg, SC), which was consistent with the concept that the behavioural response was mediated by activation of the 5-HT2A receptor. These results indicate that 1P-LSD produces LSD-like effects in mice, consistent with its classification as a serotonergic hallucinogen. Nevertheless, the extent to which 1P-LSD might show psychoactive effects in humans similar to LSD remains to be investigated.
Return of the lysergamides. Part II: Analytical and behavioural characterization of N6‐allyl‐6‐norlysergic acid diethylamide (AL‐LAD) and (2’S,4’S)‐lysergic acid 2,4‐dimethylazetidide (LSZ)
Lysergic acid N,N‐diethylamide (LSD) is perhaps one of the most intriguing psychoactive substances known and numerous analogs have been explored to varying extents in previous decades. In 2013, N 6‐allyl‐6‐norlysergic acid diethylamide (AL‐LAD) and (2’S,4’S)‐lysergic acid 2,4‐dimethylazetidide (LSZ) appeared on the ‘research chemicals’/new psychoactive substances (NPS) market in both powdered and blotter form. This study reports the analytical characterization of powdered AL‐LAD and LSZ tartrate samples and their semi‐quantitative determination on blotter paper. Included in this study was the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS), low and high mass accuracy electrospray MS(/MS), high performance liquid chromatography diode array detection and GC solid‐state infrared analysis. One feature shared by serotonergic psychedelics, such as LSD, is the ability to mediate behavioural responses via activation of 5‐HT2A receptors. Both AL‐LAD and LSZ displayed LSD‐like responses in male C57BL/6 J mice when employing the head‐twitch response (HTR) assay. AL‐LAD and LSZ produced nearly identical inverted‐U‐shaped dose‐dependent effects, with the maximal responses occurring at 200 µg/kg. Analysis of the dose responses by nonlinear regression confirmed that LSZ (ED50 = 114.2 nmol/kg) was equipotent to LSD (ED50 = 132.8 nmol/kg) in mice, whereas AL‐LAD was slightly less potent (ED50 = 174.9 nmol/kg). The extent to which a comparison in potency can be translated directly to humans requires further investigation. Chemical and pharmacological data obtained from NPS may assist research communities that are interested in various aspects related to substance use and forensic identification. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. AL‐LAD and LSZ emerged in 2013 on the ‘research chemicals’ market. This study presents a comprehensive analytical characterization of powdered material and blotters. Consistent with other serotonergic hallucinogens, both compounds displayed LSD‐like properties in mice when employing the head‐twitch response (HTR) assay. Analysis of the dose‐responses confirmed that LSZ (ED50 = 114.2 nmol/kg) was equipotent with LSD (ED50 = 132.8 nmol/kg), whereas AL‐LAD was slightly less potent (ED50 = 174.9 nmol/kg).
Return of the lysergamides. Part III: Analytical characterization of N6-ethyl-6-norlysergic acid diethylamide (ETH-LAD) and 1-propionyl ETH-LAD (1P-ETH-LAD)
The psychoactive properties of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) have fascinated scientists across disciplines and the exploration of other analogs and derivatives has been motivated by deepening the understanding of ligand-receptor interactions at the molecular level as well as by the search for new therapeutics. Several LSD congeners have appeared on the new psychoactive substances (NPS) market in the form of blotters or powders. Examples include 1-propionyl-LSD (1P-LSD), AL-LAD and LSZ. The absence of analytical data for novel compounds is a frequent challenge encountered in clinical and toxicological investigations. Two newly emerging lysergamides N6-ethyl-6-norlysergic acid diethylamide (ETH-LAD) and 1P-ETH-LAD were characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), low and high mass accuracy electrospray MS(/MS), GC solid-state infrared analysis, high performance liquid chromatography diode array detection as well as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Limited analytical data for ETH-LAD were previously available, whereas information about 1P-ETH-LAD has not previously been encountered in scientific literature. This study extends the characterization of lysergamides distributed on the NPS market, which will help to make analytical data available to clinicians, toxicologists and other stakeholders who are likely to encounter these substances. The analysis of a test incubation of 1P-ETH-LAD with human serum at 37 °C by LC single quadrupole MS at various time points (0–6 h, once per hour and one measurement after 24 h) revealed the formation of ETH-LAD, suggesting that 1P-ETH-LAD might serve as a pro-drug. 1P-ETH-LAD was still detectable in serum after 24 h.